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苗圩:深化采掘工业开放合作 影响全亚洲性价比高容纳性增加

发布时间: 2018-4-23 14:59:02


2018年4月20日,我国日报刊发工业和信息化部大波波苗圩英文签名文章《Further opening up of manufacturing to promote global growth》,我国日报网发布该文章中文版《深化采掘工业开放合作 影响全亚洲性价比高容纳性增加》。现将原文登如下:
    深化采掘工业开放合作 影响全亚洲性价比高容纳性增加
    西方有句成语“一棵树挡不住北风”,中国有句成语“世人拾柴火焰高”。开放合作、帮助共赢,在此根底上构建人类命理同样体,正日益成为全亚洲共鸣。
    2018年是我国共产党十九大后的残局之年,也是中国改造翻开40比年。纵观改造翻开40年的进程,中国采掘工业承袭开放除的理念,坚持引进来和走出去偏重,坚持多边开放与地域开放结合,慢慢从策性开放向准则性开放改变,成为中国对外翻开的重要窗口和合作共赢的重要范畴。
    40比来,中国发作了宏壮提高,成为亚洲采掘工业生产和摆大国、采掘工业范畴运用外资大国和境外投入大国,慢慢融入国内行业放工体系,对全亚洲性价比高增加作出了重要支出。2017年,中国货品进摆总额达到4.1万亿美元,是1978年的783倍;采掘工业范畴真正运用外资达335亿美元,对外间接投入累计1201亿美元,国内帮助合作的范围、层次和路径反复拓展,中国采掘工业全面开放的格局已是引起并反复深化。
    开放范畴反复扩大。采掘工业一贯是单帮投入的核心范畴,2017年我国采掘工业新建立单帮投入家4986家,同比增加24.3%。新修改的《单帮投入行业指点目录(2017年)》,大幅压减了对单帮投入的准入门槛,在采掘工业31个大类、179其中类和609个小类中,完全对外资开放的已有22个大类、167个种类和585个小类,分别占71%、93.3%和96.1%。与此另外,中国家海外投入近比来也呈现微弱增加方向,采掘工业占海外投入权重三分之一前面说,覆盖纺织、食品、机械、汽车、标记原子等浩瀚范畴,为合作双方带来丰裕结果。例如,2010年吉祥公司收买沃尔沃后,历经一系列策划改善,到2015年沃尔沃全亚洲共零售50多万辆汽车,创下该品牌建立88比来的历史新纪录,助力沃尔沃走出窘境并从新抖擞活力。在这一进程中,吉祥也除了本身调置水平,并遵照协同和规模起到与沃尔沃引起帮助共赢的同样体。
    合作地域反复拓展。从性价比高特区到滨海翻开城市再到中西部地域,中国采掘工业引起了全方位、多层次、宽范畴的对外翻开格局。1980年,中国在深圳建立榜首个性价比高特区,各国的本、技术和人才持续来到深圳,并遵照彼窗口打开960万平方公里的宏壮市场。时至今天,面向全国、西门子、西红柿、英特尔、白虎、丰田、塔塔等亚洲500强家的身影已是摆上中国东中西部地域,绝大大都家都取得了良OK投入结果。近几年,在继续坚持引进来的另外,我国政府鼓励中资家耐心走出去。遵照“一带一起”建筑,中国制作家境外投入从过去重要投向国外、美国和东南亚地域反复拓展到其他地域,很多家耐心到沿线国家投入兴业,开展国内产能和设备制作合作。中国同哈萨克斯坦、马来西亚等30多个国家签署了产能合作来确定文件,飞行规划和项目,一批沿线国家需要用到的钢铁、非金属、建材等范畴严峻项目在商场化运作中寻找采用,一批境外行业园区相继落成,为关于国家开展产业革命、产业革命进程作出了实真实在的支出。
    开放层次反复除。近比来,单帮投入的核心从加工制作慢慢拓展到核算机、半导体二极管、禀赋制作等高新技能范畴,在中国建立地域总部、创造性中间的多国公司近2000家。如中法家做到共建“中法工业团结创造性中间”合作需要,国外达索系统公司将在动态仿真、增材制作、多机械人优秀制作等范畴与中方开展深度合作,产未来采掘工业创造性技能抱平台。2017年,高技能采掘工业真正使用外资665.9亿元,同比增加11.3%;其中,标记原子及通信设备采掘工业、核算机及作业设备采掘工业、医疗仪器设备及仪器外表采掘工业同比分别增加7.9%、71.1%和28%。中国家境外投入的规模和层次也在高效除。2012年,中国对美间接投入初次超过美国对华投入;2016年,中国对美间接投入达169.81亿美元,同比增加111.5%。在进入“全亚洲行业20强”的中国工程机械制作商中,徐工、中联重科、三一、柳工等家几乎都在国外建立了创造性机构。
    合作路径越来越常态化。在开展“中国制作2025”采用进程中,中国自动飞行别的国家的采掘工业除策划,采用各种多边、双方协作机制开展采掘工业国内合作,与德、法等国在策划飞行、专业制订、园区建筑等方面耐心开展问题如与合作,涌展现很多国内合作典范。目前,已建立了中国-东盟投入合作本、中拉产能合作投入本、中欧同样投入本、中墨投入本、中法第三方市场合作同样本等,旨在影响双方采掘工业合作除。另外,中美、中德在禀赋制作、工业互联网等范畴的合作反复深化。如,美国盛行电气公司也在工业互联网技术、专业、联盟等范畴与中国家开展务虚合作。又如,中德在禀赋制作范畴围绕行业、专业化、人才培育、树模园区等核心合作专业,开展了禀赋制作及出产进程网络化合作试点树模,影响中德双方互学互鉴,在合作新模式中得到帮助帮助。
    平等帮助性反复提高。开放的中国采掘工业受益于国外本钱、技术和人才的投入,也反复为外资家赋予了不错结果。2017年,中国乘用车共零售2472万辆,其中德系、日系、美系、韩系和法系乘用车销量分别达到485万辆、420万辆、304万辆、114万辆和46万辆,分别占乘用车零售总量的19.6%、17.0%、12.3%、4.6%和1.8%。中国制作家海外投入也给这边带去本、技术和产品,做到了这边的找工作、除和地方税,反复演出共赢和多赢的故事。到2017年底,仅中国家在境外经贸协作区累计投入就达到307亿美元,拨拉东道国税费24.2亿美元,为这边创造找工作需要的岗位25.8万个。美中干系国内部报告显示,中国家在美国俄亥俄州间接约请了超过14万名美国人,不单是为这边支出了宝贵的地方税和找工作机会,将有助于维护和除这边面向全国配套设施建筑。因此,《华尔街日报》觉得中国投入重振美国“生锈地域”。
    40比来,改造翻开有力地开展了中国采掘工业的高效除,不单是支持了中国性价比高的反复高效增加,也为全亚洲性价比高高兴增加作出了突出支出。采用安理会发布的《2018年亚洲性价比高形势与瞻望》报告,2017年全亚洲性价比高将增加3%,中国对全亚洲性价比高增加的支出率约为三分之一。在华外资家面向全国受益于中国性价比高增加,美中产业国内部比来发布的《2017年我国商业气体知道的》称,95%的受访公司在中国反复维持盈利,且三分之一的公司意味着其在华行业比在其他市场的行业盈利高。
    伴这些年来中国采掘工业的崛起,一些人紧张,中国采掘工业除中存在的产能多余等构造性问题外溢,将会对别的国家行业除带来比较大冲击;将有一些人紧张,我国政府推出“中国制作2025”,只有有利于当地家除,将会对别的国家家排列不公平竞赛门槛。彼心结是没必要的,正如习近平总书记在我国共产党十九大报告中指出的一样,“中国开放的安全门不会关闭,只会越开越大”。不论你过去、现在,还是未来,帮助共赢、开放合作都是中国采掘工业除进程中坚持的一定原则。另外,中国采掘工业对外翻开还需要进一步扩大开放范畴,除策清晰度和高兴性,更新政府效力功能,反复除营商气体。
    咱们将在采掘工曾一般开放的根底上,进一步落实汽车、舶、飞机等作业开放要求,放宽外资股比门槛格外是轿车作业外资股比门槛,并增加同国内经贸规律飞行,为单帮赋予更多更OK投入机会。
    咱们将踏实促成“一带一起”建筑。发挥好家、工会、园区、政府等好几次感化,除中心水平,引导更多的中国家到沿线国家投入兴业,建立高水平的创造性中间、制作基地和工业园区等。面向“一带一起”建筑带来的宏壮需要的,促成与沿线国家在禀赋制作、工业互联网、5G、车联网、中小家、民用航空、网络安全等范畴的沟通协作,得到好几次帮助共盈。
    咱们将反复更新营商气体。坚持“中国制作2025”及其关于策措施厚此薄彼地适用于大多数在中国境内的家,包括内资家和外资家。树立健全单帮投入准入前国内工资加负面清单调置机制,切实避免准则性交易成本,提高常识产权保养,除事中想不到羁系能力和水平,为全亚洲投入者造成一个高兴公平清晰、法治化、可预期的营商气体。
    开放带来除,开放一定后进,这已被古今国内的除实践重复证实。看到复杂多变的国内形势,没有哪个国家能够独立应对各种挑战,也没有哪个国家能够退到达本身开放的孤岛。咱们将继续承袭开放合作的理念,坚持商场化导向,更大更广融入全亚洲补充体系,在开放合作中耐心执行社会职责,与亚洲各国一齐,随便努力、同样负责、志同道合、共渡难关,开展性价比高全亚洲化对着愈加开放、包括、普惠、平衡、共赢的专业除,努力构建人类命理同样体。

Further opening up of manufacturing to promote global growth

"A single tree cannot block the chilly wind," goes a European saying. Similarly, a Chinese proverb says: "Many hands make light work." It is becoming a global consensus to build a community of shared future for humankind based on openness and win-win cooperation.
  This year 2018 is the first year after the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, and also marks the 40th anniversary of China's reform and opening-up.
  Throughout the past 40 years, China's manufacturing industry has remained committed to the philosophy of open development, the development path of "bringing in" and "going global", and opening up both at multilateral and regional levels. Therefore, the manufacturing sector has gradually shifted from policy-oriented to institutional opening-up, becoming an important part of the overall national opening-up process for win-win cooperation.
  The past four decades also have witnessed profound changes in China. As far as manufacturing is concerned, China has become the leading country in the world in terms of production, export, foreign investment utilization and overseas investment. And China's manufacturing sector is gradually integrating into the global industry division of labor, contributing significantly to global economic growth.
  In 2017, China's total import and export of goods reached $4.1 trillion, which is 783 times of that in 1978. For the manufacturing sector, the annual actual utilization of foreign capital reached $33.5 billion and direct overseas investment amounted to$120.1 billion, with mutually beneficial cooperation with foreign countries expanding in scope, level and approach. A framework of all-round opening-up of the manufacturing sector is also taking shape and continues to develop.
  Scope of opening-up continues to increase
  The manufacturing sector has remained a key area for foreign investment. In 2017, there were 4,986 newly established foreign-invested manufacturing enterprises in China, up 24.3 percent year-on-year. The recently revised Catalogue for the Guidance of Foreign Investment Industries (2017) has substantially reduced the access restrictions for foreign investment. In terms of manufacturing products, 22 of the 31 categories, 167 of the 179 subcategories, and 585 of the 609 branch-categories are fully open to foreign investment, accounting for 71 percent, 93.3 percent and 96.1 percent, respectively, of the categories.
  In recent years, the momentum of Chinese enterprises' investment abroad has been growing vigorously. The manufacturing sector takes up more than one-third of the total overseas investment, covering areas such as textiles, food, machinery, automobile and electronics, and generating enormous economic returns for both sides.
  For example, Geely acquired Volvo in 2010. After a series of strategic adjustments, Volvo sold more than 500,000 vehicles worldwide in 2015, a record high in its 88-year history, helping the company overcome its difficulties and regain business vitality. During the process, Geely also improved its management and established with Volvo a community of shared interests through collaboration and scale effect.
  Areas of cooperation continue to expand
  From special economic zones at the beginning to opening up coastal cities and central and western regions later, the opening-up process for China's manufacturing sector is becoming multi-dimensional, multi-level and wide-ranging. Since China established its first special economic zone in Shenzhen in 1980, capital, technologies and talents from different parts of the world have been attracted by the city, and later by the entire Chinese market of 9.6 million square kilometers.
  As of today, many of the world's top 500 companies, such as Volkswagen, Siemens, Apple, Intel, Samsung, Toyota and Tata, have all established their presence across the eastern, central and western regions of China. Most of those companies have enjoyed good investment returns. In recent years, while continuing with the "bringing-in" strategy, the Chinese government has also encouraged domestic enterprises to "go global".
  Driven by the Belt and Road Initiative, Chinese manufacturing companies are expanding their overseas investment to other regions besides Europe, North America and Southeast Asia, which have been their focus for decades. Many companies are exploring investment opportunities in countries along the Belt and Road and seeking cooperation on international capacity and equipment manufacturing.
  China has signed relevant documents with more than 30 countries, including Kazakhstan and Malaysia, on international capacity cooperation for synergizing development plans and facilitating cooperative projects. As a result, a batch of major projects on iron and steel, non-ferrous metals, construction materials and other areas are being smoothly implemented to meet the urgent needs of the countries along the Belt and Road, and a number of industrial parks have been established overseas. These cooperation projects have boosted the industrialization and modernization process of the concerned countries.
    Process of upgrading opening-up continues
  In recent years, the focus of foreign investment has been gradually moving from processing and manufacturing to high-tech fields such as computers, integrated circuits and smart manufacturing.
  Nearly 2,000 multinational companies have set up their regional headquarters or research and development centers in China. For instance, Dassault Systems and its Chinese partner have agreed to establish a Sino-French joint industry innovation center. They will strengthen cooperation in dynamic simulation, additive manufacturing and multi-robot advanced manufacturing to develop an incubation platform for future innovative manufacturing technologies.
  The actual use of foreign investment in high-tech manufacturing was$66.59 billion in 2017, up 11.3 percent year-on-year, of which the growth rates for such sectors as electronics and communications equipment, computers and office equipment, and medical equipment and instruments were 7.9 percent, 71.1 percent and 28 percent, respectively. The scale and level of overseas investment by Chinese enterprises are also seeing rapid increase.
  In 2012, Chinese direct investment in the United States exceeded, for the first time, US investments in China. In 2016, China's direct investment in the US reached $16.98 billion, up 111.5 percent year-on-year. And Xuzhou Construction Machinery Group, Zoomlion, Sany and Liu-Gong Group, which are among the world's top 20 engineering machinery manufacturers, as well as other Chinese companies have set up R&D centers in Europe.
  Cooperative systems being normalized
  Thanks to the implementation of the Made in China 2025 plan, China has enhanced synergies in manufacturing development strategies and promoted cooperation with Germany, France and other countries through multilateral or bilateral mechanisms. The exchanges and cooperation, among others areas, cover strategy coordination, standardization and development of industrial parks.
  In fact, a number of financial cooperation mechanisms have been in place to promote bilateral cooperation in manufacturing, including China-ASEAN Investment Cooperation Fund, China-Latin America Production Capacity Cooperation Investment Fund, China-EU Joint Investment Fund, China-Mexico Investment Fund, and China-France Fund for Joint Cooperation with Third-Party Markets.
  Besides, Sino-US and Sino-German cooperation on smart manufacturing and Industrial Internet is deepening. For example, General Electric Company is cooperating with Chinese companies on Industrial Internet technologies and standardization. Another example is that, by focusing on smart manufacturing, standardization, talents development, demonstration parks, China and Germany have launched pilot projects for cooperation on intelligent manufacturing and production process networking so as to learn from each other and achieve mutual benefit through new ways of cooperation.
  The level of reciprocity continues to improve
  While benefiting from the inflow of foreign capital, technologies and talents, China's manufacturing sector has also continuously generated favorable economic returns for foreign companies. In 2017, a total of 24.72 million passenger vehicles were sold in China, of which German, Japanese, US, South Korean and French brands accounted for 19.6 percent, 17.0 percent, 12.3 percent, 4.6 percent and 1.8 percent of the total sales volume, respectively.
  By investing overseas, Chinese manufacturing companies have also brought funds, technologies and products to the target countries and thus contributed to the development of the local economy, by creating jobs and paying tax, producing a win-win result.
  By the end of 2017, Chinese companies' accumulated investment in overseas trade cooperative zones was$30.7 billion, which generated$2.42 billion in tax and fees, and created 258,000 local jobs for the host countries. A report released by the National Committee on US-China Relations shows Chinese companies employed more than 140,000 American workers in Ohio, which not only generated tax income and created jobs, but also helped improve local public infrastructure. This prompted even the Wall Street Journal to refer to Chinese investment as helpful for reviving the Rust Belt cities in the US.
  The 40 years of reform and opening-up have vigorously promoted the rapid development of China's manufacturing sector, supported the sustainable and rapid growth of the Chinese economy, and contributed significantly to the steady growth of the global economy. According to the World Economic Situation and Prospects 2018 report published by the United Nations, global economic growth is estimated to have reached 3 percent in 2017 with the Chinese economy contributing about one-third to that growth.
    Foreign firms benefit from China's progress
  According to the 2017 China Business Environment Survey, released by the US-China Business Council recently, 95 percent of the responding foreign companies said they enjoyed continuous profits in China, with one-third of the respondents indicating their business profits in China are higher than in other markets.
  With the rise of the Chinese manufacturing sector, some people are concerned that the spillover effect that might arise from structural problems such as excess capacity will have a negative impact on other countries' industries. Others are worried that the Made in China 2025 plan may only benefit the local enterprises and create obstacles to foreign companies, thus resulting in unfair competition. These concerns are unnecessary.
  As General Secretary Xi Jinping stated in the report to the 19th CPC National Congress: "China will not close its open door to the world; instead, China will become more and more open." China's manufacturing industry has been and always will be upholding the fundamental principle of mutual benefit and open cooperation. We will also further open up the manufacturing industry, improve policy transparency and stability, optimize government services and efficiency, and continue to improve the business environment.
  Moving from where we are, we will implement the commitments to further open up such sectors as automobiles, shipbuilding and aircraft manufacturing, by easing restrictions over the proportion of foreign equity as early as possible, especially in the auto sector. We will also enhance alignment with international economic and trade rules, and provide foreign investors with more and better opportunities.
  Solid steps will be taken to implement the Belt and Road Initiative. We will see to it that the enterprises, associations, parks and governments play their due roles in the implementation. We will also improve public services and encourage more Chinese companies to invest and do business in countries along the Belt and Road, in order to establish high-level R&D centers, manufacturing bases and industrial parks. In response to the huge demands arising from the Belt and Road Initiative, we will facilitate exchanges and cooperation with countries along the Belt and Road in smart manufacturing, Industrial Internet, 5G, connected vehicles, small and medium-sized enterprises, civil aviation and cybersecurity, thus promoting mutual benefit and common development.
  Business environment will be optimized
  We are committed to ensuring that the Made in China 2025 plan and other relevant policies are applied equally to all enterprises in China, both Chinese and foreign enterprises. We will establish a solid mechanism for managing foreign investments-characterized by pre-establishment national treatment with a negative list approach-reducing government imposed transaction costs, strengthening intellectual property rights protection, and enhancing regulation both during and after investment, with the aim of creating a stable, fair, transparent, law-based business environment for global investors.
  It has been widely acknowledged throughout history that openness brings progress and isolation only leads to backwardness. Given the complex and ever-changing international environment, no country on its own can address the many challenges, nor can any country afford to retreat into self-isolation. We will adhere to the principle of open cooperation and market-based orientation, integrate into the global supply chain at a deeper and broader level, and actively fulfill our due social responsibilities in the process of opening-up and cooperation.
  And we will work together with other countries to share responsibilities, overcome difficulties, and make economic globalization more open, inclusive, balanced and beneficial with a view to building a community of shared future for humankind.
  The author is minister of Industry and Information Technology.